Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Petiveria alliacea
The leaf, stem and root decoctions of Petiveria alliacea(referred to as Anamu or Apacin (Guatemala), Guinea–Hen weed (English), Awogba or Ojusaju (Yoruba), kanunfari (Hausa) and Akwa-ose (Igbo) have been employed as diuretic, antispasmodic, sedative, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents in traditional medicine. Cold maceration and Soxhlet extraction techniques were employed to obtain oils from the leaf, stem and root of P. alliacea. The oils obtained were subjected to tests to determine their antimicrobial (McFarland technique) and antioxidant (DPPH and ascorbic acid tests) properties. The results of these tests as presented here indicate that the oils have both antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The antimicrobial tests on the following microorganisms Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Rhizopus sp., Aspergillus niger, showed that the cold hexane leaf extract and cold ethanol leaf extract were most effective at limiting the growth of Salmonella typhi and the Rhizopus sp. respectively with an MIC value of 3.125mg/mL and MBC value of 6.25mg/mL. The ethanol leaf extracts using Soxhlet technique were most effective at MIC value of 3.125 mg/mL on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Rhizopus sp., and Aspergillus niger. The antioxidant property of the extracts was determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as reference standard.
Simple steam distillation procedures was carried out to determine the presence of Essential oil in the fresh leaf of Petiveria alliacea and the GC-MS analysis was also carried out on the crude extracts.
Keyword: Petiveria alliacea, crude extracts, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, Essential oil, GC-MS.